2008 bowling essay contest

Putnam then contrasts the countertrends of ever increasing mass-membership organizations, nonprofit organizations, and support groups to the data of the General Social Survey . This data shows an aggregate decline in membership of traditional civic organizations, supporting his thesis that . social capital has declined. He then asks the obvious question "Why is US social capital eroding?". [4] He believes the "movement of women into the workforce", [5] the "re-potting hypothesis" [6] [7] and other demographic changes have made little impact on the number of individuals engaging in civic associations. Instead, he looks to the technological "individualizing" of our leisure time via television , Internet , and eventually " virtual reality helmets". [8]

Media. The media is one of the sociocultural influences which has been well investigated and became the focus of effects of media images on body image. There are studies found that females who has watched more television's programme and read more about fashion magazines are more influenced by media to change their body compared to males (. Jones, Vigfusdottir, & Y. Lee, 2004; Ricciardelli and McCabe, 2001). However, there are studies also showed that media has been blamed for their unrealistic appearance ideals in influencing females to feel dissatisfied with their own bodies and start to starve themselves (Wykes & Gunter, 2005). Media portrayed females' appearances as thin and larger breast while for males as tall and muscular and these pictures are everywhere included magazines, advertisements, television and Internet. Use of technology and special effects in editing pictures allows images to be more perfect than real life. However, these images have a major impact on individual's perception as they will compare themselves with the ideal images. There are studies showed that females who always expose themselves to thin-ideal images portrayed in media will increase their body image dissatisfaction and lower their self-esteem than those were exposed to non-appearance related commercials (Dohnt & Tiggermann, 2006). However, there are findings stated that males are less influenced by media compared with females. This incident happen may be due to men are less focus on their body image towards the images portrayed in media.

2008 bowling essay contest

2008 bowling essay contest

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