If the 1990’s was the decade of J-Pop, then the ‘noughties’ especially since 2002 have been the decade of the ‘Korean Wave’. The focus of cultural cool in Korea and other parts of East Asia has shifted to Korean popular culture. Like in the previous shift from ‘Americanization’ to ‘Japanization’, other cultural influences have not been replaced; instead they have been forced to make room in their customer’s lives for this newly powerful influence. The emergence of the ‘Korean Wave’ follows the 1997 IMF crisis in Korea. After this ‘national humiliation’, the Korean Government’s plan to regain its former economic power included the acknowledged need to identify and exploit new markets for its products and also to diversify the range of products exported. The culture industry was one of the keys to this and so, K-Pop was aggressively promoted in East and South-East Asia. “The Koreans have just begun to realize that culture can be as profitable as semi-conductors or cars.” 
After World War I, the emphasis on Americanization programs was gradually shifted from emergency propaganda to a long-time educational program, when a study of conditions in the draft army made by the United States Surgeon General 's office showed that 18% to 42% of the men in army camps were unable to read a newspaper or to write a letter home, and that in the Northern and Midwestern United States these illiterates were almost entirely foreign born. Indications were that barriers to any understanding of . aims and interests were even more marked than this among the older men and the women in the foreign colonies of the . Hundreds of Americanization agencies sprang up overnight.